Sunday, March 29, 2009
Thursday, March 26, 2009
Monday, March 23, 2009
Zero = Sifr
One = Wahed
Two = Ithnayn
Three = Thalatha
Four = Arbaa
Five = Khamsa
Six = Sitta
Seven = Sabaa
Eight = Thamania
Nine = Tiss’a
Ten = Ashara
Thursday, March 19, 2009
Tuesday, March 17, 2009
Six weeks later the family moved to Munich and he began his schooling there at the Luitpold Gymnasium. Later, they moved to Italy and Albert continued his education at Aarau, Switzerland.
In 1896 he entered the Swiss Federal Polytechnic School in Zurich to be trained as a teacher in physics and mathematics. In 1901, the year he gained his diploma, he acquired Swiss citizenship and, as he was unable to find a teaching post, he accepted a position as technical assistant in the Swiss Patent Office. In 1905 he obtained his doctor’s degree.
During his stay at the Patent Office, and in his spare time, he produced much of his remarkable work and in 1908 he was appointed Privatdozent in Berne. In 1909 he became Professor Extraordinary at Zurich, in 1911 Professor of Theoretical Physics at Prague, returning to Zurich in the following year to fill a similar post. In 1914 he was appointed Director of the Kaiser Wilhelm Physical Institute and Professor in the University of Berlin. He became a German citizen in 1914 and remained in Berlin until 1933 when he renounced his citizenship for political reasons and emigrated to America to take the position of Professor of Theoretical Physics at Princeton. He became a United States citizen in 1940 and retired from his post in 1945.
After World War II, Einstein was a leading figure in the World Government Movement, he was offered the Presidency of the State of Israel, which he declined, and he collaborated with Dr. Chaim Weizmann in establishing the Hebrew University of Jerusalem.
Einstein always appeared to have a clear view of the problems of physics and the determination to solve them. He had a strategy of his own and was able to visualize the main stages on the way to his goal. He regarded his major achievements as mere stepping-stones for the next advance.
In his early days in Berlin, Einstein postulated that the correct interpretation of the special theory of relativity must also furnish a theory of gravitation and in 1916 he published his paper on the general theory of relativity. During this time he also contributed to the problems of the theory of radiation and statistical mechanics.
In the 1920’s, Einstein embarked on the construction of unified field theories, although he continued to work on the probabilistic interpretation of quantum theory, and he persevered with this work in America. He contributed to statistical mechanics by his development of the quantum theory of a monatomic gas and he has also accomplished valuable work in connection with atomic transition probabilities and relativistic cosmology.
After his retirement he continued to work towards the unification of the basic concepts of physics, taking the opposite approach, geometrisation, to the majority of physicists.
Einstein’s researches are, of course, well chronicled and his more important works include Special Theory of Relativity (1905), Relativity (English translations, 1920 and 1950), General Theory of Relativity (1916), Investigations on Theory of Brownian Movement (1926), and The Evolution of Physics (1938). Among his non-scientific works, About Zionism (1930), Why War? (1933), My Philosophy (1934), and Out of My Later Years (1950) are perhaps the most important.
Albert Einstein received honorary doctorate degrees in science, medicine and philosophy from many European and American universities. During the 1920’s he lectured in Europe, America and the Far East and he was awarded Fellowships or Memberships of all the leading scientific academies throughout the world. He gained numerous awards in recognition of his work, including the Copley Medal of the Royal Society of London in 1925, and the Franklin Medal of the Franklin Institute in 1935.
Einstein’s gifts inevitably resulted in his dwelling much in intellectual solitude and, for relaxation, music played an important part in his life.
He married Mileva Maritsch in 1901 and they had two sons; their marriage was dissolved and in 1917 he married his cousin, Elsa Einstein, who died in 1936.
He died on April 18, 1955 at Princeton, New Jersey
Sunday, March 15, 2009
Saturday, March 14, 2009
Show the nature of a thing by identifying the essential elements and showing how they are related. Weaknesses or disadvantages may come to light in this process.
Present the case for and/or against a particular proposition.
Point out the important features, criticise.
Identify characteristics or qualities that resemble each other. Emphasise similarities and also mention differences where appropriate.
Stress the dissimilarities and differences between things, events, problems, or qualities.
Express your judgement about the merit or truth of the factors or views mentioned. Draw conclusions, discussing both the limitations and the good points.
Provide concise, clear, and authoritative meanings. Give the limits of the definition, but omit detailed explanations. Show how the item defined differs from items in other classes.
Recount, characterise, outline, and relate in sequence.
A drawing, chart, plan, or graph. Diagrams should be labelled and there should be an accompanying explanation.
Examine, analyse carefully, and give reasons for and against. Be complete and give details, usually with a view to assessing how satisfactory something is.
Carefully appraise in relation to some standard, referring to advantages, limitations, and costs and benefits as appropriate; attempt to come to a judgement.
Investigate critically, appraise a subject in detail.
Clarify, interpret, and elaborate on the material presented. Give reasons for differences of opinion or results, and try to analyse causes.
Use a concrete example, diagram, or figure to explain or clarify a problem.
Identify, then focus attention so as to clarify.
Prove or give reasons for conclusions or decisions.
Present the essential features, showing main points and subordinate points. Omit minor details. Stress the arrangement or classification of things.
Examine a subject critically, analysing and commenting on the important or controversial statements.
Present the main points in a brief and clear sequence, usually omitting details or examples.
Give the main points or facts in condensed form.
Friday, March 13, 2009
- To anyone with kids of any age, here’s some advice.
Bill Gates recently gave a speech at a High School about 11 things they did not and will not learn in school. He talks about how feel-good, politically correct teachings created a generation of kids with no concept of reality and how this concept set them up for failure in the real world.
- Rule 1 : Life is not fair - get used to it!
- Rule 2 : The world won’t care about your self-esteem. The world will expect you to accomplish something BEFORE you feel good about yourself.
- Rule 3 : You will NOT make $60,000 a year right out of high school. You won’t be a vice-president with a car phone until you earn both.
- Rule 4 : If you think your teacher is tough, wait till you get a boss.
- Rule 5 : Flipping burgers is not beneath your dignity. Your Grandparents had a different word for burger flipping: they called it opportunity.
- Rule 6 : If you mess up, it’s not your parents’ fault, so don’t whine about your mistakes, learn from them.
- Rule 7 : Before you were born, your parents weren’t as boring as they are now. They got that way from paying your bills, cleaning your clothes and listening to you talk about how cool you thought you were. So before you save the rain forest from the parasites of your parent’s generation, try delousing the closet in your own room.
- Rule 8 : Your school may have done away with winners and losers, but life HAS NOT. In some schools, they have abolished failing grades and they’ll give you as MANY TIMES as you want to get the right answer. This doesn’t bear the slightest resemblance to ANYTHING in real life.
- Rule 9 : Life is not divided into semesters. You don’t get summers off and very few employers are interested in helping you FIND YOURSELF. Do that on your own time.
- Rule 10 : Television is NOT real life. In real life people actually
have to leave the coffee shop and go to jobs.
- Rule 11 : Be nice to nerds. Chances are you’ll end up working for one
Thursday, March 12, 2009
- Time is something that you can’t buy.
- Time is something’ that is priceless.
- Time will bring us into many situations.
- Time is true and exact. You can’t deny time, you can’t pass time even just skip for a sec and you can’t roll back.
- Time will lost you if you ignore, it and time will found you if you respect it.
- Time is always goes and never turns back.
- Time will leave you behind if you trapped in your sec-of-your-moment.
- Time will bring you the truth.
- Time will show you the power of God.
- Time will bring you pain also bring you heal.
- Time will tell you when you have to move and when you have to stop.
- Time always give you a question and answer.
- Time will give you love and take it from you.
- Time is never look back.
- Time will bring you a picture of the future.
- Time will tricking your mind.
- Time will open your new day and will close your entire life.
- Time will bring you loneliness and will bring you crowd.
- Time will bring you power and take it away.
- Time will inspire you.
- Time is going to be your friend when you alone.
- Time will make you to realize about you.
- Time will awake you and put you in a sleep.
- Time will show you of whom you are and what you are.
- Time will bring you an opportunity.
- Time will found you to something that you lost.
- Time will warn you.
- Time its all you got in this life. And time will limit you.
‘Even time can be judge of 24 hours a day, 30 to 31 days a month, 12 month a year, but you never know how much time do you have in this life.Just remember and know your time, you will see everything.’
“I can not change time, but time can change me.”
Sunday, March 8, 2009
This is not a new idea to neuroscience, but one that is gaining strength, said University of Illinois entomology and neuroscience professor Gene Robinson, lead author of a review on the subject this week in the journal Science. Stanford University biology professor Russell Fernald and Illinois cell and developmental biology and neuroscience professor David Clayton are co-authors.
Genes in the brain are malleable, turning on or off in response to internal and external cues. While genetic variation influences brain function and social behavior, the authors write, social information also alters gene expression in the brain to influence behavior.
Thanks to the newly sequenced genomes of several social animals, including honey bees and zebra finches, and new technologies such as microarrays (which allow researchers to glimpse the activity of thousands of genes at a time) neuroscientists are gradually coming to understand that “there is a dynamic relationship between genes and behavior,” Robinson said. “Behavior is not etched in the DNA.”
A critical insight came in 1992, in a study of songbirds led by David Clayton. He and his colleagues found that expression of a specific gene increases in the forebrain of a zebra finch or canary just after it hears a new song from a male of the same species. This gene, egr1, codes for a protein that itself regulates the expression of other genes.
The finding was not unprecedented; previous studies had shown that genes switch on and off when an animal is trained to perform a task in the laboratory, Robinson said.
Clayton discovered in 1992 that gene expression changes in the brain of a zebra finch or canary when it hears a new song from a male of the same species.
But when Clayton’s team found this change in gene expression in response to a social signal – a song from a potential competitor, something the bird would likely hear in nature – it drew attention to how powerfully social interactions can alter gene expression in the brain.
“What’s more significant to a bird than hearing another bird singing?” Clayton said. “This is going on in the equivalent of our auditory cortex and association cortex, so this is pretty high-level stuff going on in the brain. And this was happening in more or less real time by very naturalistic stimuli.”
Reading Clayton’s 1992 paper “was a eureka moment for me,” Robinson said.
“This just brought it out into the social world, saying that this occurred in animals that have to make a living in the real world and pay attention to a lot of nuanced stimuli,” he said. “So I think that was really a very important step in our understanding.”
In his own work, Robinson has used microarrays to study this phenomenon on a larger scale and has found that literally thousands of genes turn on or off in the honey bee brain in response to social stimuli. One such gene, called for (for foraging), was originally discovered in fruit flies by Marla Sokolowski at the University of Toronto. Flies that carry different versions of for show different types of foraging behavior. Each version gives its bearer a behavioral advantage in certain environmental conditions.
Robinson knew that honey bee workers start out working in the hive as nurses and only later graduate to the role of foragers. Perhaps, he reasoned, even though the differences in for are etched in the DNA in flies, this same gene in the bee might be more dynamic and help influence the transition from hive work to foraging.
In a study published in 2002, Robinson and his colleagues reported that expression of for did in fact increase in the brains of honey bees as they developed into foragers, and manipulating its expression caused bees to forage precociously.
The researchers also found that social factors, in the form of chemical signals called pheromones, induced this “upregulation” of for. Foragers produce a pheromone that signals to the younger bees that there are enough foragers. If the foragers are removed from the hive, some young bees develop into foragers much earlier in life than usual.
Sokolowski’s work indicated that for had changed over evolutionary time, producing two varieties of fruit flies that differed in their behavior. Robinson had found that social information altered expression of the same gene over a much shorter timescale – within the lifespan of a honey bee – also changing its behavior.
“An appreciation of the idea that differences in gene expression can occur over vastly different time scales helps understand some of the complex relationships between genes, brain and behavior,” Robinson said.
The picture that is emerging from these and other studies suggests that social signals can have a profound effect on when and how genes function.
An organism’s genes, its environment, the social information it receives, “all these things interact,” said Clayton. “Experience is constantly coming back in to the level of the DNA and twiddling the dials and the *****.”
Saturday, March 7, 2009
Thursday, March 5, 2009
1. Balance your glucose - it provides fuel for your brain. Try to eat carbohydrate foods in the evening as it promotes relaxation and sleep.
2. Eat essential fats - ensure your diet is rich in omega-3 fats found in oily fish.
3. Include plenty of protein rich foods in your diet. Proteins are essential to make neurotransmitters which are vital for the thinking process. Try to eat a protein based lunch to optimise your mental performance and alertness throughout the day.
4. Eat foods rich in vitamins and minerals to ‘fine tune’ your mind.
5. Drink 1.5 to 2 Litres (Minimum)of water a day to keep your brain well hydrated.
6. Oxygenate your brain by exercising and eating little and often. Eat your main meal before 7pm.
Wednesday, March 4, 2009
"Wait advocated the New York System as more logical than either the American Braille or the British Braille systems, and these systems competed in what was known as the War of the Dots."
Monday, March 2, 2009
Inventor: Thomas Alva Edison
Criteria: First practical. Modern prototype. Entrepreneur.
Invention: electric light bulb in 1879
Function: noun / electric light bulb / incandescent lampDefinition: An electric lamp in which a filament is heated to incandescence by an electric current. Today’s incandescent light bulbs use filaments made of tungsten rather than carbon of the 1880’s.Patent: 223,898 (US) issued January 27, 1880
Edison next secured employment in Boston and devoted all his spare time there to research. He invented a vote recorder that, although possessing many merits, was not sufficiently practical to warrant its adoption. He also devised and partly completed a stock-quotation printer. Later, while employed by the Gold and Stock Telegraph Company of New York City he greatly improved their apparatus and service. By the sale of telegraphic appliances, Edison earned $40,000, and with this money he established his own laboratory in 1876. Afterward he devised an automatic telegraph system that made possible a greater speed and range of transmission. Edison’s crowning achievement in telegraphy was his invention of machines that made possible simultaneous transmission of several messages on one line and thus greatly increased the usefulness of existing telegraph lines. Important in the development of the telephone, which had recently been invented by the American physicist and inventor Alexander Graham Bell, was Edison’s invention of the carbon telephone transmitter.
In 1877 Edison announced his invention of a phonograph by which sound could be recorded mechanically on a tinfoil cylinder. Two years later he exhibited publicly his incandescent electric light bulb, his most important invention and the one requiring the most careful research and experimentation to perfect. This new light was a remarkable success; Edison promptly occupied himself with the improvement of the bulbs and of the dynamos for generating the necessary electric current. In 1882 he developed and installed the world’s first large central electric-power station, located in New York City. His use of direct current, however, later lost out to the alternating-current system developed by the American inventors Nikola Tesla and George Westinghouse.
In 1887 Edison moved his laboratory from Menlo Park, New Jersey, to West Orange, New Jersey, where he constructed a large laboratory for experimentation and research. (His home and laboratory were established as the Edison National Historic Site in 1955). In 1888 he invented the kinetoscope, the first machine to produce motion pictures by a rapid succession of individual views. Among his later noteworthy inventions was the Edison storage battery (an alkaline, nickel-iron storage battery), the result of many thousands of experiments. The battery was extremely rugged and had a high electrical capacity per unit of weight. He also developed a phonograph in which the sound was impressed on a disk instead of a cylinder. This phonograph had a diamond needle and other improved features. By synchronizing his phonograph and kinetoscope, he produced, in 1913, the first talking moving pictures. His other discoveries include the electric pen, the mimeograph, the microtasimeter (used for the detection of minute changes in temperature), and a wireless telegraphic method for communicating with moving trains.
At the outbreak of World War I, Edison designed, built, and operated plants for the manufacture of benzene, carbolic acid, and aniline derivatives. In 1915 he was appointed president of the U.S. Navy Consulting Board and in that capacity made many valuable discoveries. His later work consisted mainly of improving and perfecting previous inventions. Altogether, Edison patented more than 1000 inventions. He was a technologist rather than a scientist, adding little to original scientific knowledge. In 1883, however, he did observe the flow of electrons from a heated filament—the so-called Edison effect—whose profound implications for modern electronics were not understood until several years later. Edison died in West Orange on October 18, 1931.